UROLOGICAL
GLOSSARY

 
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A
absorbent products antibody assisted reproductive technologies
adjuvant antigen autoimmune
AIDS anti-inflammatory agents  
alternative therapy artificial urinary sphincter  
pads and garments, disposable or reusable, worn in cases of incontinence to absorb leaked urine
assisting the primary means of therapy, e.g., coupling radiation treatment with surgical excision of tumors

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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therapy that is not standard, including herbal medicines, accupuncture, and accupressure, as well as medicinal therapies, such as shark cartilage, maitake mushroom, etc.

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protein produced in a controlled manner by certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) to neutralize an antigen or foreign protein and fight disease, but whose uncontrolled production can cause illness; immunoglobulin

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substance that can trigger an immune response, resulting in production of an antibody as part of the body's defense against infection and disease; allergen

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drugs that reduce inflammation and its effects

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surgically implanted device (consisting of three parts: pump, balloon reservoir, and cuff) that is used to control the involuntary release of urine associated with prostate and urinary tract surgery

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fertility treatments that incorporate methods of sperm retrieval and preparation: artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and sperm microinjection techniques

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abnormal response of the immune system that causes antibodies and immune-mediated cells to attack one's own tissues

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B
BPH
(benign prostatic hyperplasia)
biopsy blood culture
benign bladder training blood thinners
bilateral bladder bone scan
enlargement of the prostate associated with aging

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not cancerous

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affecting both sides of the body or two paired organs, e.g., the kidneys

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(v.) to remove a sample of tissue for diagnostic evaluation; (n.) tissue specimen

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behavioral modification technique used to resist or inhibit the urge to urinate unpredictably

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hollow, muscular, balloon-shaped organ that stores urine until it is excreted

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laboratory examination of a blood sample to detect the presence of disease-causing microorganisms

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drugs that inhibit blood clotting

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nuclear medicine study used for detecting the presence of boney metastasis

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C
calcifications chemotherapy CT KUB
calcium-channel blockers condom CT scan
CAT scan conscious sedation cyst
catheter core needle biopsy cystectomy
catheterization corticosteroids cystocele
chemolysis creatinine cystoscopy

hard, dense, stonelike material that forms in numerous areas throughout the body, including arteries (plaque), veins (phleboliths), kidneys (stones), and gallbladder (gallstones)

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drugs that limit calcium entry into the cells and stimulate contraction

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specialized x-ray examination that is often used to visualize the brain and spinal structures, chest, abdomen, and pelvis

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tube passed through the body for draining fluids, injecting fluids into body cavities, and performing certain tests

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insertion of a catheter

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destruction through the use of chemicals; chemical injection treatment to dissolve kidney stones

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treamtent involving the use of drugs

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sheath, usually latex rubber, placed over the penis, fingers, or sex toy to prevent pregnancy and the spread of sexually transmitted disease during penetration

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medication that allows a patient to sustain what could be an unpleasant experience by producing "grogginess" and often complete amnesia of the event

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used by a pathologist to detect abnormality in tissue

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group of anti-inflammatory drugs similar to natural hormones produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands

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waste product filtered from the blood by the kidneys and expelled in urine

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computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis in which no oral or intravenous dyes are used, which is often used to detect conditions such as acute appendicitis, renal or ureteral stones, and diverticulitis

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See CAT scan.

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sac that contains semisolid or liquid contents

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surgical removal of the bladder

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herniation of the bladder into the vagina

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procedure using a flexible scope inserted into the urethra and then into the bladder to determine abnormalities in the bladder and lower urinary tract

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D
density detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia digital rectal exam
detrusor diuretic  
densities on plain x-rays vary from black to white, depending on the composition of the material the x-rays pass through; black indicates the lowest x-ray density (air) and white, the highest (bone)

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the muscle within the bladder lining that squeezes urine out of the bladder.

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lack of coordination between the bladder and the external sphincter muscle, resulting in the inability to empty the bladder completely, which may cause severe urinary tract damage and life-threatening consequences

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drug used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention by increasing the elimination of salt and water by the kidneys

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digital rectal exam; used to feel the size, shape, and texture of the prostate

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E
echocardiogram electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) excise
echocardiography epididymis (pl., epididymes) excisional biopsy
ejaculation estrogen external-beam radiation therapy
electrocardiography/
electrocardiogram
(ECG, EKG)
exacerbation ESWL
(extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy)
record produced by echocardiography

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noninvasive cardiac imaging procedure used to diagnose heart disease, valve disorders (valvular heart disease), weakened heart muscle, fluid around the heart (pericarditis), and other abnormalities or defects by reflecting sound waves off the heart

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ejection of semen during male orgasm

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graphical recording of the electrical currents that pass through the heart muscle during each heartbeat; commonly called an EKG because the procedure was developed in the Netherlands, where it was spelled "electrokardiogram"

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technique that uses small shock waves to break up small kidney stones

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coiled tube that extends the length of each testis and connects with the vas deferens

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hormone produced by the ovaries that is responsible for the development of female sex characteristics

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worsening of symptoms

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to cut out

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surgical removal of tissue for pathological analysis

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treatment that utilizes external-beam radiation

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highly focused electrical impulses that are projected from outside the body to pulverize kidney stones

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F
fine needle aspirate
insertion of small gauge needle into an area of abnormality with an attempt to suck out small amounts of tumor for review by a pathologist

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G
gadolinium gantry grade
gallium scan gout  
contrast agent that is given intravenously during MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to increase visualization of specific abnormalities

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nuclear medicine study used to monitor gallium-avid lymphomas

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the doughnut- or bagel-shaped device used for CT or MRI

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systemic disease caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints of the body, causing inflammation, swelling, and pain

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system used to classify the aggressiveness of a tumor

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H
habit training HIV hypermobility
hematuria hormonal therapy hyperplasia
hemorrhage hospice  
heparin hydrocele  
behavioral modification technique that establishes scheduled toileting at regular intervals

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blood in the urine, visible or microscopic

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bleeding

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drug that inhibits blood clotting

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(human immunodeficiency virus) virus that affects the immune system and causes the disease known as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disorder)

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systemic therapy to block the action of specific hormones; use of antiandrogens to deprive cancer cells of the testosterone they need for growth

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home-based health care and support for terminally ill patients and their families

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painless swelling of the scrotum caused by a collection of fluid around the testicle; common in middle-aged men

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inability of the pelvic floor muscles to provide the necessary support for the urethra and bladder neck, causing the bladder neck to drop when any downward pressure is applied, and leading to involuntary leakage

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excessive growth of normal cells of an organ

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I
incisional biopsy interstim continence control therapy invasive procedure
inflammation interstitial laser irritable bladder
insemination intrinsic sphincter deficiency  
surgical removal of tumor tissue through a small incision

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redness, swelling, heat, and pain in a tissue caused by injury, infection, or hypersensitivity to an allergen

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deposition of semen into the uterus, cervix, or vagina

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therapy used to treat urge incontinence

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laser probe used to destroy prostatic tissue and to allow easier urination

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weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles

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medical examination that invades the body either by incision or by insertion of an instrument through the skin

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involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder that cause uncontrolled urination

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K
Kegel exercises kidney stone
kidney KUB
exercises to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor in order to control urination and prevent leakage

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one of a pair of organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity that makes urine through blood filtration

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hard mass composed of urine elements that form in the kidneys

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kidney, ureter, bladder

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L
laparoscopic lymph node dissection (LLND) laser
laparoscopy lithotripsy
procedure using a laparoscope to obtain a tissue sample of a lymph node(s)

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generally less invasive surgery that uses a laparoscope to visualize internal organs through a small incision

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light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; device that produces light in a coherent, intense beam

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procedure that uses ultrasonic shock waves to break up stones in the urinary tract so their fragments can be passed

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M
malignant metastatic mL
metastasis mg MRI
(magnetic resonance imaging)
metastasize mixed incontinence myelosuppressive
cancerous tumor or other disease state that has a debilitating, unremitting course

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spread of disease from one organ or part to another

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to spread from one part of the body to another, as in cancer

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pertaining to metastasis; cancer that has spread to either the lymph nodes (regionally metastatic) or organs, e.g., lung, liver, adrenal glands, bone, or brain (distant metastasis)

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milligram

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stress and urge incontinence occurring simultaneously

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milliliter

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diagnostic test that uses electromagnetic energy to produce soft-tissue images of the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems

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therapy that diminishes white blood cell count

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N
 
lowest white blood cell count measured between chemotherapy treatments

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needle marker is inserted to define abnormal area prior to biopsy

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removal of the kidney

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conventional tomograms of the kidneys, especially in small sections of the kidneys

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elevated, solid mass or lump (up to 2 cm in diameter) that can be located in the epidermis, dermis, or the subcutaneous fat

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medical examination that does not penetrate the skin or invade the body, except for minor needle sticks

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drugs that act against inflammation, reduce fever, relieve muscle pain, and prevent blood clots

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increase in pressure within the ventricles of the brain, causing dementia, gait difficulties, and urinary incontinence

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O
oncologist orchiectomy overactive bladder
open nephrolithotomy orchitis overflow UI
physician specializing in cancer treatment

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surgical excision of kidney stones via the back or abdomen in which the kidney may be opened

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surgical removal of one or both of the testicles

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inflammation of the testicle

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condition characterized by involuntary, uncontrollable bladder muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase

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leakage of small amounts of urine from a bladder that is always full

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P
palliation pelvic muscle exercises prostate
palliative percutaneous nephrolithotomy prostatectomy
paraneoplastic perineal prostatectomy prostatic stent
parasite periurethral bulking injections prostatitis
paresthesias platelets prostatron
TUMT - transurethral microwave thermotherapy)
pathology polyps pubovaginal sling
PCP (primary care physician) polysomnography pyelonephritis
peak expiratory flow post-void residual (PVR) volume pyuria
relieving symptoms and maintaining comfort through either the use of surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy

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something that helps manage symptoms of, but does not cure, a disease

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disorders that occur due to the remote effects of cancer, such as through the mechanism of hormonal or antibody production

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organism that lives in or on another organism (host) strictly for its own survival

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unusual sensory symptoms of tingling, numbness, or other abnormal feelings of sensation

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field concerned with examination of tissues removed for the purposes of diagnosing disease and guiding patient care

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large subset of physicians who do not provide specialized care, including internists, pediatricians, and general practitioners

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measurement of the ability to blow air out of the lungs that is used to diagnose asthma

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pelvic muscle exercises intended to improve pelvic muscle tone and prevent leakage associated with stress urinary incontinence; Kegel exercises

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manual extraction of kidney stones "through the skin"

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procedure to remove the prostate that uses a perineal incison, which allows easier visualization of the bladder/urethral anastomosis, quicker recovery, tissue spare, and blood conservation

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procedure in which injected implants are used to "bulk up" the area around the neck of the bladder, allowing it to resist increases in abdominal pressure, which can push down on the bladder and cause leakage

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coagulating blood cells

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small fingerlike outgrowths of tissue from the linings of various tubular organs that are usually benign

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sleep study, in which numerous physiological monitors are attached to the patient to record nighttime breathing, brain activity, and physical activity

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diagnostic test that measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination

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muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of the urethra and secretes seminal fluid, a milky substance that combines with sperm (produced in the testicles) to form semen

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surgical removal of the prostate; See also suprapubic prostatectomy, retropubic prostatectomy, radical retropubic prostatectomy, perineal prostatectomy.

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wire device that expands after placement, pushing prostate tissue away from passageway and allowing for easier urination

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inflammation of the prostate

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microwaves used to open passageways, allowing for easier urination

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surgical procedure in which tissue or synthetic material is placed under the bladder neck to support and immobilize it, improving sphincter function and continence by decreasing bladder neck movement

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inflammation of the kidney, usually due to a bacterial infection

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presence of pus in the urine, usually an indication of kidney or urinary tract infection

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R
radiation radical retropubic prostatectomy retropubic prostatectomy
radiation oncologist retrograde ejaculation  
 
anti-cancer therapy or treatment using high-energy rays beamed to the tumor site to destroy cancer cells

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physician trained in the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer

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removal of the entire prostate through an abdominal incision that allows the surgeon to spare nerve tissue and analyze lymph nodes

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discharge of semen into the bladder rather than through the urethra and out of the body

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surgical procedure using an abdominal incision in order to incise the prostatic capsule and remove obstructing tissue

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S
STD
(sexually transmitted disease)
stress test surgeon
spermatic cord stress urinary incontinence suture
stereotactic biopsy suprapubic prostatectomy  
infection spread through sexual intercourse or genital contact

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bundle of testicular arteries and ducts protected by woven tissue

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biopsy technique that relies on computer guidance to exactly locate and biopsy the tumor

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test that monitors the heart during exercise in order to identify the presence of heart disease or the risk of developing cardiac problems during strenuous activity; also, diagnostic test that requires patients to lift something or perform an exercise to determine if there is urine loss when stress is placed on bladder muscles

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involuntary loss of urine during periods of increased abdominal pressure, such as laughing, sneezing, coughing, or lifting

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incising the bladder to remove obstructing prostatic tissue through a suprapubic incision below the navel

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physician who has been educated and trained in diagnosis and preoperative, operative, and postoperative management

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(n.) a stitch; (v.) to stitch

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T
testosterone TUNA
(transurethral needle ablation)
tumor
transient urinary incontinence TURP
(transurethral resection of the prostate)
 
sex hormone that stimulates development of male sex characteristics and bone and muscle growth; produced by the testicles and, in small amounts, by the ovaries

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temporary episodes of urinary incontinence that are alleviated after the cause of the episode is identified and treated, such as a bladder infection

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destruction of prostate tissue with thermal energy that is passed through a needle

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common treatment for benign prostate hypertrophy, in which the inside of the prostate (urethra) is cored out to make the passage of urine easier

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abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division, either benign or malignant; large and deep solid growth of skin or subcutaneous fat

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U
ultrasonic lithotripsy urge or urgency urinary incontinence
underactive bladder urge UI urinary tract infections
ureteroscopy urinalysis urodynamic tests
use of high-frequency ultrasound waves to destroy kidney stones gradually, which are then passed naturally by the patient or removed by grasping forceps

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bladder contraction of inadequate magnitude and/or duration that prohibits the bladder from emptying normally; See also overflow incontinence.

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flexible, fiberoptic instrument resembling a long, thin telescope that is inserted through the urethra and bladder up to the ureter for observation and often for retrieval of kidney stones

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strong desire to void

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involuntary loss of urine associated with a sudden and strong urge to void

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group of physical and chemical tests done on a sample of urine to check for various disorders, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract

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involuntary loss of urine sufficient enough to be a problem

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infections caused by bacteria that invade the urinary system and multiply, leading to an infection

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diagnostic tests to examine the bladder and urethral sphincter function

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V
vaportrode vas deferens vasovasostomy
varicocele embolization vasectomy reversal  
varicocelectomy vasoepididymostomy  
type of cautery electrode that vaporizes prostatic tissue in order to expand the prostatic channel and make urination easier

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outpatient procedure in which the varicocele is closed off (occluded) by means of a balloon catheter (flexible tube with a tiny detachable balloon), steel coil, and/or sclerosing (vessel-hardening) solution

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cutting away of a varicocele

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tubes that connect the epididymes to the prostate gland

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See vasovasostomy.

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microsurgery that uses a microscopic camera and very small operative tools to remove blockage in the epididymis and to reattach the epididymis to the vas deferens

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reconnection of the severed ends of the vas deferens, which restores the flow of sperm through the vas deferens; vasectomy reversal

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